Nuclear Science and Techniques

《核技术》(英文版) ISSN 1001-8042 CN 31-1559/TL     2019 Impact factor 1.556

Nuclear Science and Techniques ›› 2020, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (8): 76 doi: 10.1007/s41365-020-00786-7


A LN2-based cooling system for a next-generation liquid xenon dark matter detector

Karl Ludwig Giboni1,2 • Pratibha Juyal1,2 • Elena Aprile3 • Yun Zhang3 • Junji Naganoma4   

  1. 1 INPAC and School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    2 Shanghai Laboratory for Particle and Cosmology, Shanghai 200240, China
    3 Columbia Astrophysics Lab and Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
  • Received:2020-04-17 Revised:2020-05-19 Accepted:2020-06-01
  • Contact: Yun Zhang
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2016YFA0400301) and the grants for the XENON Dark Matter Project.
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Karl Ludwig Giboni, Pratibha Juyal, Elena Aprile, Yun Zhang, Junji Naganoma. A LN2-based cooling system for a next-generation liquid xenon dark matter detector.Nuclear Science and Techniques, 2020, 31(8): 76     doi: 10.1007/s41365-020-00786-7

Abstract: In recent years, cooling technology for liquid xenon (LXe) detectors has advanced driven by the development of dark matter (DM) detectors with target mass in the 100–1000 kg range. The next generation of DM detectors based on LXe will be in the 50,000 kg (50 t) range requiring more than 1 kW of cooling power. Most of the prior cooling methods become impractical at this level. For cooling a 50 t scale LXe detector, a method is proposed in which liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a small local reservoir cools the xenon gas via a cold finger. The cold finger incorporates a heating unit to provide temperature regulation. The proposed cooling method is simple, reliable, and suitable for the required long-term operation for a rare event search. The device can be easily integrated into present cooling systems, for example the ‘‘Cooling Bus’’ employed for the PandaX I and II experiments. It is still possible to cool indirectly with no part of the cooling or temperature control system getting in direct contact with the clean xenon in the detector. Also, the cooling device can be mounted at a large distance, i.e., the detector is cooled remotely from a distance of 5–10 m. The method was tested in a laboratory setup at Columbia University to carry out different measurements with a small LXe detector and behaved exactly as predicted.

Key words: Noble liquid detectors (scintillation, ionization, double-phase), Dark matter detectors (WIMPs, axions, etc.), Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics, Very low-energy charged particle detectors, Time projection chambers, Cryogenics, Detector cooling and thermo-stabilization