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20 August 2021, Volume 39 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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REVIEW
X-ray-induced synthesis of gold nanoparticles and in situ XAFS measurements
Jinsong FAN,Jing CHEN,Jiang LI,Ying ZHU,Lihua WANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40101-040101.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040101
Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1661KB) ( 26 )   Save

X-ray irradiation offers a promising avenue to expedite the green synthesis of nanoparticles with high efficiency, simplicity, and environmental friendliness. X-ray technologies, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and synchrotron X-ray technologies are utilized to explore the structural evolution of nanoparticles. We summarize numerous studies concerning X-ray-induced synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Further, we discuss the nuclear growing mechanism—radiolysis and conventional wet synthesis—explored via in situ XAFS analysis. Lastly, we propose the improvement of radiolytic synthesis and the application of in situ XAFS.

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RADIATION CHEMISTRY
Electron beam radiation grafting acrylic acid modified polytetrafluoroethylene
Kang ZHAO,Junna GAO,Xingjuan SHU,Pan CUI,Ning WANG,Guoshi CUI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40201-040201.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040201
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (830KB) ( 17 )   Save

The surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was modified by electron beam-induced grafting of acrylic acid. The change of related groups in Fourier-transform infrared spectrum indicated that acrylic acid was introduced on the PTFE surface. The influence of irradiation and grafting parameters on the extent of grafting were studied by single factor analysis, and the following optimal radiation-induced grafting conditions were determined: absorbed dose of 18 kGy, acrylic acid solution concentration of 60%, and reaction temperature of 70 ℃. Moreover, the surface water contact angle test showed that the surface wettability of PTFE after modification by radiation-induced grafting improved compared with that before modification (the water contact angle dropped from 120° to 60°). The bond strength of the modified PTFE reached 23 N/cm2.

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RADIOBIOLOGY AND RADIOMEDICINE
Effect of long-term 1.8 GHz combined electromagnetic radiation on the learning and cognitive ability of rats
Meng GAO,Huaiyu PENG,Xianghui WANG,Hongxin QI,Yiran HOU,Jiakai TONG,Jie ZHANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40301-040301.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040301
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (821KB) ( 13 )   Save

To provide experimental evidence that defines the safety limits of electromagnetic exposure, the effects of long-term and low-dose electromagnetic irradiation during the developmental stage of free-move behaving Sprague Dawley (SD) rats on their learning and cognitive abilities were investigated. A 1.8 GHz electromagnetic wave was used as the irradiation source, and the absorbed dose was set at 0.40 W/kg during the 8-hour working time and 0.08 W/kg during the rest time of the day, the whole irradiation was continuously administered for 4 weeks. The water maze experiment was performed to detect the learning and memory ability of the rats. The chemical colorimetric method was used to measure the level of cholinergic markers, the level of monoamine neurotransmitters, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the concentration of oxidative stress products in the hippocampus of the rats. In addition, the hippocampal tissue was sectioned, stained, and observed under an optical microscope. The results showed that the hippocampal tissue in the brain of the exposed group was not significantly different from that of the sham group, but the content of cholinesterase was reduced and the content of acetylcholine and the activity of acetylcholine transferase were increased in the exposed group. The contents of the neurotransmitter dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) were also significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the sham group. The water maze test results showed that there was no significant change in the behavior of rats in the exposed group. Although long-term and low-dose electromagnetic radiation can cause disorders of the cholinergic system and neurotransmitter levels in SD rats, the changes in these indicators did not cause a decline in the learning and memory ability of rats, and the levels of cholinergic system markers and neurotransmitters returned to normal after 14 days.

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Experimental study on radioactive dermatitis induced by 60Co γ rays in Wistar rats
Guihua ZHU,Congshu HUANG,Guifang LIU,Guanghui XIE,Zengchun MA,Ling YANG,Yue GAO
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40302-040302.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040302
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1108KB) ( 6 )   Save

Wistar rats were irradiated with different doses of 60Co γ rays to establish models of radioactive dermatitis to exploring the development of their characteristics and rules. Twenty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) (n=6) , rad 30 Gy (n=10), and rad 45 Gy (n=10) groups. The rad 30 Gy and 45 Gy groups received a single dose of local irradiation to the buttocks, respectively. Changes in irradiated skin, body weights, and skin blood flow were observed on the 7 th, 14 th, 21 st, 28 th, 35 th, 45 th, and 60 th day after irradiation. Irradiated skin tissue samples were collected for H&E staining on the 60 th day to analyze the resultant pathological changes. Compared to the NC group, the rad group suffered distinct degrees of skin injury, which were severe on the 21 st day, followed by gradual recovery. Skin blood flow of the buttocks in erythematous hyperemia and early healing were increased, whereas its decrease in ulcers necrose and late healing. H&E staining demonstrated epidermal thickening and increase in the number of squamous epithelial cells in the rad 30 Gy group and marked epidermal thicking and dermal inflammatory cell infiltration in the rad 45 Gy group. Better model of radioactive dermatitis may be obtained by using rad 45 Gy 60Co γ rays on the skin of the buttock of Wistar rats for a singe dose of local radiation.

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Evaluation of the effects of cavity under bolus using the Monte Carlo algorithm
Dong KONG,Lin HUI,Xudong KONG,Xianding WEI,Yutian ZHAO,Bo YANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40303-040303.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040303
Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1046KB) ( 10 )   Save

To investigate the effects of “cavity under bolus” on dose distribution, we compared and analyzed the difference in dose distribution in the water phantom in the presence and absence of cavities using the Geant4 Monte Carlo package. The model of the linear accelerator head was built using Geant4, and the phase space file of the radiation particles under the model was obtained by simulating the process of electron hitting the target. A 30 cm× 30 cm×30 cm water phantom with a center coinciding with the field center was built; its upper surface was located at the source-axis level and was vertical to the incoming ray. A 0.3-cm, 0.5-cm, or 1.0-cm bolus was built on the upper surface of the phantom. For each bolus, there were a control model and several models with cavities. The bolus was close to the phantom in the control model, and there were different cavity thicknesses between the bolus and the phantom in the models with cavities. The central-axis and shallow off-axis doses of the phantom in different models were calculated based on the phase space file; the doses for the models with cavities were compared based on the results of the control model. The results showed that thicker cavities were associated with greater effects on the central-axis and shallow off-axis doses. If the cavity thicknesses were 0.2 cm, 0.3 cm, and 0.5 cm for the 0.3-cm, 0.5-cm, and 1.0-cm boluses, the largest effect of the lower dose were 2.97%, 2.86%, and 3.45%, respectively. The cavity thickness increased with the rapid increase in the magnitudes of the effects. If the thicknesses of the cavities were the same, the effects of the central-axis doses were the greatest on the 0.5-cm bolus, followed by the 1.0-cm and 0.3-cm boluses, and those of the shallow off-axis doses were the greatest on the 0.3-cm bolus, followed by the 0.5-cm and 1.0-cm boluses. When planning, a suitable thickness of the bolus should be selected based on the tumor location. Technicians should be extremely careful when placing the bolus to ensure the cavity thickness is less than half of the bolus thickness.

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Model of HaCaT cell injury induced by 60Co γ-rays and the underlying mechanism
Congshu HUANG,Guihua ZHU,Guifang LIU,Guanghui XIE,Zengchun MA,Yue GAO
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40304-040304.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040304
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (989KB) ( 6 )   Save

The aim of this study was to investigate the damage caused to HaCaT cells by 60Co γ-rays at different doses and the underlying mechanism and to establish a cell model of radiation-induced skin injury. HaCaT cells were irradiated with a single dose of 60Co γ-rays (the radiation source was 3 m away from the cells, and the dose rate was 100.68 cGy/min). The cell activity was detected using the CCK-8 method, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured using the water soluble tetrazolium salt staining method, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was determined using the thiobarbituric acid method, the apoptosis rate was monitored through flow cytometry, and the expression of the apoptosis- and inflammation-related proteins was detected via western blotting. After irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at 18 Gy for 24 h, the morphology of HaCaT cells changed significantly, cell activity decreased to 57.5%, MDA level increased to 66.28 μmol/mg, inhibition rate of SOD increased to 32.12%, apoptosis rate increased to 18.05%, and expression of inflammatory factors increased. After incubation for 24 h at an absorbed dose of 18 Gy, the cellular models of radiation-induced skin injury were established. The mechanism of cell injury may be related to cell oxidative damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory reaction.

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Clustered DNA damages induced by low-energy (1~20 eV) electrons and the general mechanism of transient anions
Puxiang ZHUANG,Yanfang DONG,Yu SHAO,Yi ZHENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40305-040305.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040305
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1231KB) ( 19 )   Save

Five monolayer plasmid DNA films were irradiated by low-energy electrons (LEEs) (1~20 eV) in ultra-high vacuum. Crosslinks, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks and the loss of the supercoiled configuration were analyzed via agarose gel electrophoresis. Base damages were revealed by Escherichia coli base excision and repair endonucleases (Nth and Fpg). The electron energy dependence for the effective yields of various DNA damages showed that no clustered damage within 20 base pairs could be caused by electrons <4 eV. Crosslinks, SSBs, base damage-related crosslinks, and isolated base modifications had maxima at 5 eV and 10 eV, while the peak of DSB and non-DSB clustered damage occurred at 6 eV and 10 eV. These maxima are ascribed to core-excited resonances, which decay into bond-breaking channels leading to DNA damages. The mechanism of DNA clustered damage induced by a single LEE is elucidated through the process of the formation of transient anions and the subsequent electron transfer.

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RADIATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION
Study on irradiation degradation and antioxidant activity of Astragalus polysaccharide
Maojun NI,Jingxia WANG,Xiaobin ZHANG,Chaorong PENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40401-040401.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040401
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1105KB) ( 11 )   Save

Two groups of high molecular weight Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), APS 1 (molecular weight of 1.93×106) and APS 2 (molecular weight of 3.92×105), were isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, and the two aqueous polysaccharide solutions were treated with γ-irradiation at absorbed doses of 1~20 kGy. We studied the irradiation impact on APS molecular weight, structure composition, and recovery using gel permeation chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses. We compared the antioxidant activities of different molecular-weight APS before and after irradiation via the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition rate. The results showed that the molecular-weight of APS 1 rapidly degraded to 2.33×104 with the increase in absorbed dose, and the polysaccharide recovery rate was decreased to 44.7%. The molecular weight of APS 2 decreased rapidly from 3.92×105 to 2.54×104, and the polysaccharide recovery rate decreased to 39.2%. The APS molecular weight could be effectively reduced gradually at a low absorbed dose with a high recovery rate by controlling the polysaccharide concentration. The monosaccharide composition and polysaccharide structure were essentially the same before and after the irradiation-induced degradation. The inhibition rate of APS 1 increased from 3.55% to 20.53% with the decrease in molecular weight. Finally, the DPPH inhibition rate of APS 2 increased from 15.23% to 29.61% with the decrease in molecular weights.

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Mass thickness detection and verification for radiation processing products based on X-ray detection technology
Yanqin LIU,Huaili QIN,Aifeng LIANG,Shan KUANG,Guang YANG,Qiang WANG,Jingjing LIU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40402-040402.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040402
Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF(pc) (1650KB) ( 17 )   Save

To quickly obtain the mass thickness and predetermine dose distribution of electron beam irradiated products, a new detection method was developed based on X-ray detection technology. The detection method was developed and optimized using four standard modules (aluminum sheet, aluminum ladder, polymethyl methacrylate sheet, and polymethyl methacrylate ladder). The accuracy and applicability of the method was verified using uniform materials (water and millet) with varying thickness and two practical materials (potato starch and frozen shrimp). For standard module and homogeneous materials, the results indicated that the relative error of the measurement and standard values was within the range of -5% to 5% for a value of mass thickness greater than 1.0 g/cm2, which indicated the reliability of the mass thickness detection method. The use of potato starch and frozen shrimps proved that the method could accurately predict the mass thickness distribution of heterogeneous products; furthermore, the method was instructive for the measurement of the actual dose distribution and radiation process design of the product.

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RADIATION PROTECTION
Effect of a power frequency electromagnetic field induced by a high voltage AC transmission line on the human head
Zan GONG,Zhiying CHEN,Jianbin ZENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40601-040601.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040601
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1552KB) ( 23 )   Save

High-voltage AC transmission lines are one of the important factors that produce power frequency electromagnetic exposure environmental problems. To investigate the safety of the electromagnetic exposure of a human head under high-voltage AC transmission lines, this study considers 220 kV AC transmission lines as the research object; employs COMSOL Multiphysics to establish a three-dimensional, finite element simulation model of a human head under AC transmission lines, exposed to a power frequency electromagnetic field; calculates the electromagnetic field distribution around the human head for various distances; and judges the safety of the electromagnetic exposure of the human head. The results demonstrate that the shape of the head affects the distribution of the electric field. The intensity of the electromagnetic field around the head corresponds to the distance between the transmission lines and the head. The farther the transmission line is from the head, the weaker is the electromagnetic field around the head. According to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and GB 8702—2014 standard, respectively, the minimum safe distance between the head and the electric field, when the lines are grounded, is 11.0 m and 11.5 m, and when the lines are ungrounded, 10.5 m and 12.0 m. The flux density around the head is less than these two standard limits.

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RADIATION INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
Effects of stainless steel and tungsten on a hard X-ray diagnostics system in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST)
Hongwei LU,Zhijiao NI,Xuejun ZHA
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40701-040701.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040701
Abstract ( 19 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (1208KB) ( 9 )   Save

Attenuation coefficients of γ-rays in stainless steel, lead, and tungsten were calculated theoretically. According to the theoretical calculations, cylindrical lead shielding and a collimator were designed for a high-energy hard X-ray spectrum diagnostic system in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The hard X-ray diagnostic system of EAST was introduced in detail, and the diagnostic system was tested through table experiments with radioactive 22Na sources. Attenuation coefficients of γ rays in stainless steel and tungsten were also obtained by fitting γ-ray radiation spectra. The effect of the stainless steel and tungsten materials on the X-ray and γ-ray diagnostic system was evaluated by γ-ray energy spectra. The attenuation coefficients obtained through the experiments were found to agree well with those calculated theoretically considering the error. The influence of stainless steel on low-energy X-ray or γ-ray diagnostics cannot be ignored, while its influence on high-energy X-ray or γ-ray diagnostics can be ignored. The influence of tungsten on X-ray or γ-ray diagnostics cannot be ignored. However, high Z materials such as tungsten and lead should be avoided in front of the collimation hole of the detector to reduce the influence on diagnostic data.

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Synergistic effect of total ionizing dose and single-event upset in the analog/digital converter AD574
Chuanfeng XIANG,Shuai YAO,Xin YU,Xiaolong LI,Wu LU,Xin WANG,Mohan LIU,Jing SUN,Qi GUO,Jiao CAI,Sheng YANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing. 2021, 39 (4):  40702-040702.  DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040702
Abstract ( 20 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (769KB) ( 10 )   Save

This study investigates the AD574, a 12-bit analog/digital converter (ADC) produced by American Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) using bipolar/I2L technology. The test samples are subjected to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 400 Gy(Si) under 60Co γ irradiation. The samples with and without the TID are then subjected to a single-event upset (SEU) test, and the upset times of the output codes under the input signal conditions of 0 V, 1 V, and 2.5 V are obtained. The test results indicate that, after accumulating a total dose of 400 Gy(Si), the upset of the AD574 output code shifts toward the right of the center code value, resulting in a change in the upset times. Furthermore, the mechanism of the TID-SEU synergistic effect for the AD574 is preliminarily analyzed; it is believed that this phenomenon is related to the sensitivity of the ADC internal comparator single-event transient (SET). The amplitude and width of the SET pulse of the comparator with the TID increase significantly; this causes a change in the AD574 output code value upset distribution and the number of upset times. This study on the TID-SEU synergistic effect serves as a useful reference for aerospace components with radiation hardness.

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Review on the mechanism of surface ehanced Raman spectroscope (SERS) and its biomedical application
WANG Dongfang1,2 SONG Shiping1
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (5): 1-050101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.050101
Abstract282)      PDF(pc) (2784KB)(3989)       Save

The fundamental mechanism of SERS (Surface ehanced Raman spectroscope), such as electromagnetic and chemical effect, as well as the synthesis of SERS tags with high enhancement, which will be applied in single molecule detection and single cell imaging, were discussed. For applications, SERS nanoparticle tags have been developed based on the use of embedded reporter molecules and a silica or polymer encapsulation layer. The SERS nanoparticle tags are capable of providing detailed spectroscopic information. These properties have raised new opportunities for multiplexed molecular diagnosis and in vivo Raman spectroscopy and imaging.

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Swelling and drug release properties of PNIPA/PEG porous hydrogels
LI Zhihui LIU Wentao LI Zhongyuan YANG Mingcheng GAO Xujing HE Suqin ZHU Chengshen
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (2): 9-020303.  
Abstract369)      PDF(pc) (4971KB)(3405)       Save

A series of PNIPA/PEG (poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide)/poly (ethylene glycol)) porous intelligent hydrogels, which exhibited appropriate phase transition temperature and fast response behavior, were synthesized by radiation polymerization with NIPA (N-isopropyl acrylamide) as monomer, PEG (poly (ethylene glycol)) as pore-forming agent and MBA (N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide) as crosslinking agent. The surface morphology of the material was examined by the scanning electron microscopy. The influences of NIPA content and PEG molecular weight on swelling properties were discussed. Drug release properties were studied with aspirin as a model drug. The results showed that macropores were observed in the sample, whereas hydrogels prepared without using PEG had a dense surface. The swelling ratio and water loss ratio of the sample decreased with increment of NIPA content. LCST (Lower critical solution temperature) and the release ratio increased with PEG molecular weight. The release ratio of PNIPA/PEG6000 hydrogel at 37℃ was larger than that at 25℃ and the release mechanism could be described with Fickian diffusion type.

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Study on the imaging of subcellular organelles with superresolution microscopy
JIA Sisi1 LIANG Le1 DENG Suhui1,2 HOU Shangguo1 LIU Huajie1, 2 HUANG Qing1, 2 FAN Chunhai1, 2
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (4): 40101-040101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.040101
Abstract253)      PDF(pc) (1684KB)(3246)       Save

This review focused on the developments of three common microscopes in cell biology including far-field light nanoscopy, soft X-ray microscopy based on the synchrotron radiation light source, and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy. Their mechanisms, applications in cell imaging and the existing problems are discussed. The correlative microscopy combining several imaging methods can supply more information and may provide a new insight into cell biology in the future.

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Synthesis and photopolymerization of a novel one-component photoinitiator based on benzophenone
JIANG Shan ZHU Xiaodan WANG Kemin
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (4): 40302-040302.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.040302
Abstract371)      PDF(pc) (876KB)(3211)       Save

4-(2-hydroxy-3-ethoxy propoxy radicals) benzophenone (OEBP), a novel photoinitiator for free radical polymerization, was synthesized and characterized. The photopolymerization kinetics of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) was studied with real-time infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). When this photointiator was used to efficiently initiate polymerization of acrylates and methacrylates, there was an optimum cure rate with the increase in OEBP concentration. Both the polymerization rate and final conversion rate increased with the light intensity. The kinetics study of photopolymerization of HDDA showed that OEBP was more effective as a photoinitiator compared with benzophenone and benzophenone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB).

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Biological Effects induced by low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation
MIN Rui
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (6): 1-060101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.060101
Abstract377)      PDF(pc) (296KB)(2869)       Save

Differing from high dose/high dose rate ionizing radiation which only induce an acute tissue damage effect when interacting with organisms, low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation will induce chronic stochastic effects, hormetic effects and adaptive response under certain conditions. In this paper, the definition of low dose/low dose rate radiation and some theoretical and practical problems currently existing in the biological effect research of the low dose/low dose rate radiation, a systematic review of the biological effects induced by low dose/dose rate radiation and some characteristics of the effects are introduced.

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Analysis of the shielding design for medical linear accelerator room
SHI Weina Abuliemu?Aierken
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (3): 174-177.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3434.2012.rrj.30.120309
Abstract304)      PDF(pc) (765KB)(2867)       Save

This paper is to evaluate and inspect the protective ability of the shielding walls and door with various thickness against the primary and secondary radiation coming from X-rays transferred by use of a medical accelerator according to the optimized parameters. The result indicates that the calculated thickness of the wall (except labyrinth interior wall) and accelerator facility roof could fit both the protection criterion and desired value of dose management for 15 MeV X-rays. Furthermore, the protective door should be added with a Pb layer of 8.3 mm and a polyethylene containing boron layer of 6.9 cm to meet the shielding requirement of X-rays and neutron, respectively.

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Photo-polymerization kinetics of acrylate monomer initiated by bis [2-(ochlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole] compound photo-initiator system
ZHU Xiaodan1 WANG Kemin1 QIAN Xiaochun3 NIE Jun2 MA Guiping2
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (5): 268-273.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2012.rrj.30.120503
Abstract269)      PDF(pc) (598KB)(2867)       Save

Photo-polymerization kinetics of acrylate monomer initiated by bis [2-(ochlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole] compound photo-initiator system were investigated by real-time infrared (RT-IR), while NMR and UV was used for characterization, respectively. In synthetic system BCIM was used as pho-to-initiator, N, N-bis(diethylamino) benzophenone (EMK) was used as photo-sensitizer and N-phenylglycine (NPG) was used as hydrogen donor. The kinetics was determined by real-time infrared (RT-IR). The results showed that the polymerization rate and the double bond conversion increased with the initiator concentration while the mass ratio m(BCIM): m(EMK): m(NPG) was 10: 5: 5. The optimum initiate efficiency of 96.7% and the polymerization rate of above 90% with diacrylate monomer were better than that with triacrylate monomer. It was also found that the polymerization rate could increase with light intensity.

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Role of genetic and DNA methylation alterations caused by oxidative stress in tumorigenesis
LIU Xiongxiong1,2,3 LI Qiang1,2
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (6): 60101-060101.  
Abstract303)      PDF(pc) (1145KB)(2806)       Save

Oxidative stress can initiate genetic and epigenetic alterations. Oxidative stress-induced genetic changes mainly involve that ROS attacks DNA, inducing various DNA changes like strand breaks, base modi?cations, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross linkages which are all strongly implicated in the initiation stage of tumorigenesis. In oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes, one of the most important mechanisms is the change of DNA methylation levels: hypermethylation-induced transcriptional repression (in the case of tumor suppressor genes) or hypomethylation-induced activation (in the case of oncogenes), which is closely associated with tumorigenesis. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on the role of ROS-induced oxidative stress in altering the genetic and DNA methylation during tumorigenesis was introduced, and the developing tendency of tumor therapy was prospected.

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Effect of AS1411 on radiosensitivity of uterine cervix cancer HeLa cells
LI Dongmei HONG Chengjiao ZHANG Baoguo
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (4): 8-040207.  
Abstract220)      PDF(pc) (467KB)(2658)       Save

To investigate the effects of AS1411 on cell proliferation-toxic and radiosensitivity on cervical cancer HeLa cells, CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation-toxic effects on HeLa cells, and the effect of AS1411 on the radiosensitivity of the cells was observed by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the cell toxicity of AS1411 was very small, and all the survival rates of HeLa cells were more than 95% under the condition of  different concentration of AS1411 (0 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 250 nmol/L and 500 nmol/L) and the cells for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Clonogenic assay result shows that AS1411 combined with X ray irradiation can decrease the clonogenic survival rate of HeLa cells, and the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) of HeLa cells are 1.06, 1.58 and 1.89, respectively with different drug concentrations of 100 nmol/L, 250 nmol/L and 500 nmol/L. This study proves AS1411 might enhance the radiosensitivity of the HeLa cells.

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Analysis of the most commonly used dose distribution comparison methods in radiotherapy dosimetric verification
MIAO Li SUN Yanze LI Xinmin
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (4): 247-251.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2012.rrj.30.120411
Abstract273)      PDF(pc) (2904KB)(2575)       Save

Three fields were captured with 6 MV photon beam, using a-Si EPID(SDD 100cm).Then the derived dose images were split into four regions and every region could be modified by using different methods to build models. The three dose comparison methods most commonly used in radiotherapy were used to analyze the absorbed doses in four regions. The result shows that the percentage dose difference comparison method is sensitive in steep dose gradient regions where small spatial offsets between two distributions may present large dose difference, while it works well in regions of relatively shallow dose gradients. In contrary, the DTA (distance-to-agreement) method is sensitive in shallow dose gradient regions where a large DTA value may be calculated for small dose differences, while it performs well in steep dose gradient regions. However, as the gamma method has referenced the merits of percentage dose difference and DTA, it performs well both in steep and shallow dose gradients and produces the lowest error. So the gamma comparison method can be performed better in clinical dosimetric verification.

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Research progress of radiation resistance mechanism of cancer stem cells
LIU Hu CAI Jianming
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (3): 1-030101.  
Abstract278)      PDF(pc) (284KB)(2487)       Save

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a portion of cancer cells thatare characterized by self-renewal, asymmetric division and multipotential differentiation. CSCs are believed to be the main causes of tumor metastasis, neoplasm recurrence and chemoradiotherapy resistance. CSC supports a new view in ourunderstanding of the cancer, which suggests that only when the "seeds" of cancer are cleared, can cancer radioresistance be effectively overcome. Here we take a look at the primary articles in the literature studying the mechanism of cancer radioresistanceand CSC and summarize them for review.

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Study on the properties of UV-heat curable resin containing organosilicon
LIU Hongbo LIN Feng XIAO Wangdong ZHANG Wuying XU Ling
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (3): 9-030303.  
Abstract230)      PDF(pc) (382KB)(2459)       Save

A series of organosilicon modified epoxy monoacrylates (OMEMA) containing both C=C (UV-curable groups) and epoxy (heat-curable groups) were synthesized, and a number of UV-heat curable systems were prepared. The influence of the length of the organosilicon segment on the gel content, water absorption, mechanical, volume shrinkage and thermal characterizations of UV-heat cured films using modified epoxy monoacrylates as resins were measured. Compared to the epoxy monoacrylates (EMA), UV-heat curable systems with the same active diluents, the gel contents of UV-heat cured films of OMEMA systems were about 97% and was similar to the EMA systems. Its breaking strength decreased. However, the relative elongation UV-heat cured films of OMEMA systems increased from 4.8% to 14.1%, and volume shrinkage was decreased from 6.19% to 4.93%. The decomposition temperature of UV-heat cured films was increased.

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Synthesis and photo-polymerization kinetics of fluorinated diphenyl ketone type photoinitiator
ZHANG Yalan1,3 CHEN Yonghui2 SONG Guoqiang1 YU Yunying1 NIE Jun3 MA Guiping3
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (6): 60302-060302.  
Abstract241)      PDF(pc) (970KB)(2221)       Save

Pentadecafluoro-octanoic acid 1-(4-benzoyl-phenoxymethyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl ester(EBPFOA) was synthesized with (4-Oxiranylmethoxy-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone (EBP) and Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was characterized by FT-IR, 19F NMR, and UV absorption spectra. Real time infrared spectroscope (RT-IR) was applied to investigate the effects of different monomer system, various light intensity and concentration of photo-initiator on the polymerization kinetics and the ability of EBPFOA to overcome oxygen inhibition. The results indicate that the rate of polymerization (Rp) and final double bond conversion increase with increasing light intensity. In a certain range, the higher the concentration of initiator, the higher the double bond conversion and the faster the Rp. EBPFOA shows good ability to overcome the oxygen inhibition.

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Influencing factors and calculation of RBE in heavy ion radiotherapy
YAN Jiawei LIU Yang ZHAO Qiuyue ZHANG Hong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (3): 30102-030102.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.030102
Abstract398)      PDF(pc) (2044KB)(2209)       Save

Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a major factor to determine the absorbed dose, is an important parameter of radiotherapy. Differing from that in the conventional radiation, RBE is a variable value and related with many biological and physical factors in heavy ion therapy. The paper reviews the elements that influence RBE, and briefly introduces the methods to calculate RBE in Japan, German and China.

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Simulation study on Siemens accelerator beam characteristics with Geant4 code
KONG Dong MIAO Li ZHAO Fei CHEN Yong NI Jie GU Siyi SUN Liang
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (5): 10-050801.  
Abstract252)      PDF(pc) (1522KB)(2161)       Save

The Geant4 code was used to model components of the head of Siemens medical linear accelerator with the field commonly used. Then we simulated the process of electron beams, which could produce 6 MV X-rays, bombarding a gold target. By comparison with the measured data, we ensured that the model was built correctly. Then we obtained the information of all the particles to the field plane, and wrote it to a phase space file. The kinds of particles and their average energy, energy spectrum distributions, particle fluence distributions, energy fluence distributions, and angular distributions were presented by processing the file with the procedure written by myself. The results show that the average energy of photon is higher than that of electron and positron; energy spectra of photon and electron show continuous distributions; electronic particle fluence is two orders of magnitude less than that of photons; particle fluence and energy fluence of photons are evenly distributed in the field and decrease rapidly out of the field, while the electronic’s fluctuate considerably in the field and smoothly out of the field. Angular distribution of photon is mainly concentrated within the range of 10° off the central axis, while the electronic’s are in a relatively larger range.

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Study on the property of polyolefin cable plastic prepared by electron beam irradiation
WANG Yongchang LIU Hui FANG Zhengping ZHANG Yuehong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (3): 10-030304.  
Abstract247)      PDF(pc) (1010KB)(2139)       Save

Electromechanical products exported to the EC market for wire and cable applications must meet the requirements of the RoHS. Blends consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE)/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as a matrix were investigated by electron beam irradiation. The method of cross-linking and adding an auxiliary flame retardant solution overcomes the problem that arises from a high loading of halogen free flame retardant that results in poor material performance. The effects of various components on material performance were analyzed. The established relationship can be used in actual production to provide heat resistance, be flame retardant, low smoke, halogen free and have irradiation cross-linking to optimize cable material formulation. The main performance index meets the national standard of 125℃ heat radiation cross-linking of a low smoke zero halogen flame retardant polyolefin insulation material, as well as related EU requirements.

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Effects of irradiation on the gelation properties of muscle protein
LIN Xianping YANG Wenge
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (1): 10101-010101.  
Abstract193)      PDF(pc) (270KB)(2105)       Save

Gel properties of muscle protein are the important functional characteristics in meat and its products, which determine the meat products’ unique quality, such as texture, juiciness, fat content and sensory characteristics. As a novel food preservation technology, irradiation may lead to changes in the composition and structure of protein molecule, and impact the gel forming ability and gelation properties of muscle protein. Based on the introduction of gel forming mechanism of muscle protein, effects of irradiation on the water holding capacity, mechanical properties and structure of muscle protein gel were reviewed in detail. High-dose irradiation could weaken the water holding capacity of muscle protein and result in the loss of meat juice. With different irradiation conditions or raw materials, influences of irradiation on the texture and rheological properties of muscle protein gels are different, and effects on the structure of muscle protein and its gel are more complex. Finally, the research trend of irradiation effects on the gelation properties of muscle protein is put forward in this paper.

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Review on molecular mechanisms and protective drugs research on radiation-induced lung fibrosis
ZHENG Qisheng LIU Peixun
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2016, 34 (1): 10101-010101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2016.rrj.34.010101
Abstract829)      PDF(pc) (1394KB)(2013)       Save

The current understanding of the cells, cytokines, and the key factors linked to the signaling networks implicated in RILF were summarized. Targets with potential therapeutic effects for the treatment of RILF were also be discussed and listed. From all above, we hope to provide researchers with ideas in studying the drugs with prevention and (or) the treatment of RILF.

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Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation
ZHANG Zhongxin LIU Jiangong LIU Hongyan WANG Chao DUAN Zhikai
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2013, 31 (5): 1-050101.  
Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (357KB)(1988)       Save

Low-dose ionizing radiation becomes a focus on the domain of radiation biological effects. Theories about the harmful effects, adaptive effects and the excitatory effects of low-dose ionizing radiation are progressed. The harmful effects of low-dose ionizing radiation coexist with the non-deleterious effects, and the mechanism in which harmful effects and non-deleterious effects exist as a whole remains unclear at present. In the past, the low-dose ionizing radiation biological effects were linearly extrapolated from the high-dose effects curves. However, scientists increasingly question the validity of the linear no-threshold model in predicting the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The occurrence and mechanism of the three radiation biological effects of low-doses ionizing radiation are summarized and some may be helpful for further research project.

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Synthesis and properties of flame retardant phosphorus-containing cycloaliphatic epoxy resin
HAN Dandan JIA Xiaoqin LI Yongjie WANG Tao
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (6): 60302-060302.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.060302
Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (693KB)(1964)       Save

UV-curable phosphorus-containing epoxy resin was synthesized with chain-extension of (3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)methyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ERL4221) and 2-(6-oxido-6H-dibenz(c,e) (1,2)- oxaphosphorin-6-yl)-1,4-benzenediol (DOPO-HQ) at different stoichiometric ratios. The structures of these resins were characterized by IR and 1H-NMR. The influences of different phosphorus contents on the epoxy value of the epoxy resin, thermal properties, flame retardancy, and UV curing properties were investigated. The results showed that the thermal stability and flame resistance increased compared with those of the unmodified ERL4221 epoxy resin under the same conditions. When the phosphorus mass content was 1.5%, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) reached 24.9, vertical burning achieved V-1 levels, and had a higher light curing activity.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
Application of synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy in the DNA structure research
ZHOU Peipei WANG Lihua LIU Huajie FAN Chunhai
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (3): 30101-030101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.030101
Abstract375)      PDF(pc) (1504KB)(1951)       Save

Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is one of the powerful tools for DNA structure research. Currently, the general CD spectrometer can only obtain the CD signal with wavelength above 190 nm, and the noise is very high with the wavelength range of 190−220 nm because of the influences from the air, the solvents, and the salt ion concentration of the buffer, etc., making it have not much practical value. The development of the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) makes it possible to obtain the CD signal of the DNA structure in the region of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). And now it becomes a new powerful tool for studying the DNA structure. This work firstly introduces the principle and features of SRCD technique, especially its advantages in the DNA structure research. Then the DNA structures and the factors affecting the CD signal are also reviewed. Finally, some typical DNA structures are taken as samples to analyze their SRCD spectrum.

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Preparation and UV curing of phenyl cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone oligomers
LI Yongjie ZHANG Xianshun WANG Tao
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (1): 8-010302.  
Abstract225)      PDF(pc) (678KB)(1939)       Save

Phenyl cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone oligomers (Ep-Ph-SiO) with different contents of benzene rings and epoxy groups were synthesized via sequential hydrosilylation reactions of methylhydrogen silicone oil by attaching styrene first, which was followed by reacting with 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene-1,2-epoxide in the presence of Lamoreaux catalyst. The contents of benzene rings and epoxy groups in the monomers were determined by 1H-NMR. The refractive indices (RIs) of the obtained oligomers were measured and the cationic photo-polymerization of these oligomers was studied by using triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate (P-S) as photo-initiators exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp. The results showed that the phenyl cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone oligomers exhibited higher photo-polymerization activity than diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resins and the benzene rings could improve the RIs of cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicones.

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Photochemical preparation and characterization of Fe3O4/poly ethyleneimine/Au
PENG Zheyang WU Wenxian MAO Weixing WU Kaiping XIAO Liwei WU Bin JIN Yali GONG Peijun
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (3): 7-030301.  
Abstract354)      PDF(pc) (2228KB)(1906)       Save

Core-shell magnetite/polyethyleneimine nanoparticles (Fe3O4/PEI) were synthesized by a precipitation method using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a stabilizer. Au colloids-modified magnetic nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PEI/Au) were then prepared by a photochemical method in a HAuCl4 aqueous solution, using Fe3O4/PEI as the magnetic core. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that Fe3O4/PEI nanoparticles with a mean size of 6.8 nm were quasi-superparamagnetic and the saturated magnetization is at about 37.4 A?m2?kg-1. The obtained Fe3O4/PEI/Au is irregular in shape, composed of a sub-micron aggregate of Fe3O4/PEI nanoparticles and some Au colloids with sizes ranging from 13 nm to 23 nm. Additionally, the quasi-superparamagnetic nanocomposites are magnetically susceptible and the saturated magnetization reaches 36.9 A?m2?kg-1. Therefore, Fe3O4/PEI/Au nanoparticles can be used in many areas including bioseparation and biosensors.

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Study on electronic-beam-cured aqueous polyurethane acrylates system and its properties
JIA Xiaobin PENG Jia DU Jifu ZHAO Long
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (1): 10303-010303.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.010303
Abstract331)      PDF(pc) (543KB)(1895)       Save

The PUA was prepared with 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, polyethylene glycol, and hydroxyethyl acrylate. The electron beam was used to cure the coatings. The samples were characterized by FTIR and TGA to investigate the law of the absorbed dose and the properties of the products after electron beam curing. The results showed that the absorbed dose had great effects on the characterization of the cured PUA coatings, and the samples irradiated with dose of 60−80 kGy had good mechanical properties, high gel fraction and thermal stability.

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A GEANT4 study for the dose rate distributions of a 60Co γ-rays irradiation facility
LI Lei ZENG Fansong WU Xiaoli YU Xiangzhong LI Xiaoyan JIANG Hong LI Qiang HUANG Wei YANG Guixia
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2013, 31 (2): 11-020501.  
Abstract271)      PDF(pc) (1085KB)(1882)       Save

A detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo study was performed to calculate the dose rate distributions of an industrial 60Co γ-rays irradiation facility, so it could provide a better service for the research of radiation hardening. All data produced during simulations were on-line stored and off-line analyzed by ROOT. With careful design of simulation processes, the relative errors were less than 5%. For the validation purpose, experiments with ferrous sulfate dosimeter were carried out. Furthermore, a computational model was constructed as a comparison. The relative deviations between simulated and experimental results were less than 5%. The satisfactory agreement of simulations between model and measurements indicates that our work has designed the processes of simulation and got the dose rate distributions in a correct way.

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Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement of X-ray fields'dose distribution for medical accelerator
CAI Guoxin WANG Xuetao YANG Geng ZHAO Shiwu ZHU Yuanhu ZHOU Linghong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (2): 20202-020202.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.020202
Abstract451)      PDF(pc) (714KB)(1855)       Save

The beam dose distribution is compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and measurement to investigate dosimetry characteristics for X-ray fields. The beam data, including percentage depth dose (PDD) and off axis ratio (OAR), were acquired by measurement and MC calculation in water phantom for Varian 6 MV X-ray fields. The results were compared and analyzed. The match result, for PDD of the field of 10 cm × 10 cm, has shown 96.47% agreement for r ≤1 with 2% delta dose and 2 mm DTA for calculated and measured dose distribution at the depth of 0 to 20 cm, and 99.23% for r≤1 with 3% delta dose and 3 mm DTA. The match result of OAR has shown 97.56% agreement for r ≤1 with 2% delta dose and 2 mm DTA for calculated and measured dose distribution, and 99.42% for 
r ≤1 with 3% delta dose and 3mm DTA. Electron dose is 5.3% of depth dose for 10 cm × 10 cm, and 15.2% for 40 cm × 40 cm. Dose distribution can determined through the measurement and calculation in fields.

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Progress of radiation resistant polypropylene in medical circles
LI Min XIAO Liguang ZHAO Hongkai LIU Yabing
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (3): 129-134.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2012.rrj.30.120301
Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (719KB)(1837)       Save

With the rapid development of radiation sterilization, the radiation resistant polymer for medical use has become a hot research topic in both basic and practical point view. In this paper, the recent progress of medical radiation resistant polypropylene (PP) was reviewed. Not only the radiation degradation mechanism of polypropylene, but also the color change mechanism and the preparation of radiation resistant were involved. The paper focused on the preparation of radiation resistant polypropylene and the challenge in preparation of the medical material and its future development were discussed.

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Anthocyanin contents and pigmentation analysis of tradescantia fiumiensis mutant induced by radiation
LIU Ruiyuan YU Lixia DU Yan LI Xin JIN Wenjie QU Ying DONG Xicun LI Wenjian
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (4): 40402-040402.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.040402
Abstract254)      PDF(pc) (909KB)(1831)       Save

The branches of tradescantia fiumiensis were irradiated with carbon ions, and the initial energy of the carbon ions was 95.8 MeV/u (dose rate 4 Gy/min, dose range 0−20 Gy). A mutant line with pink leaves was obtained. The aim is to explore the mutation mechanism of the mutant with pink leaves obtained by carbon ions irradiation in tradescantia fiumiensis. pH differential method was used to evaluate the total anthocyanidin content of wild type and its mutant with pink leaves. HPLC-MS method was used to detect the anthocyanin pigmentation between wild type and its mutant with pink leaves. The total anthocyanidin content of the mutant was 18 fold than that of wild type. Seven anthocyanins were determined and identified as pelargonidin, cyaniding, petunidin, malvidin, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside in the mutant; Six anthocyanins were determined and petunidin could not be detected in wild type. The results showed that, compared with wild type, the total anthocyanidin content increased and the components of anthocyanin were also changed in the mutant.

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Synthesis of plum-like and walnut-like polymer microspheres by gamma-ray irradiation induced seed-swelling polymerization
LI Bingxin1,2 WANG Mozhen1,2 GE Xuewu1,2
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (1): 10302-010302.  
Abstract226)      PDF(pc) (1716KB)(1805)       Save

In this work, micron-scaled sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene (SCPS) microspheres were prepared, and dispersed in water/styrene binary mixture as seed microspheres. The system was irradiated by 60Co g-rays after single-body swelled, and SCPS microspheres with grooved surface were fabricated. Two parameters, the content of crosslinking agent (DVB) and the sulfonation degree of the original SCPS seed microspheres, which influenced the final microspheres facial morphology were studied. The results show that walnut-like microspheres would be formed when the above two parameters are low, and plum-like microspheres prevail with increase of these two parameters. However, the special facial morphology has nothing to do with a certain dose rate range at 44−108 Gy•min−1. This work provides a facile and effective way to prepare polymer microspheres with roughness surface.

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Comparative analysis of electric field effects on the human body induced by ultra high voltage AC transmission line
CHEN Bodong LU Mai CHEN Xiaoqiang HU Yanwen
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (6): 10-060501.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.060501
Abstract367)      PDF(pc) (1388KB)(1763)       Save

To study the influence of ultra high voltage (UHV) AC transmission line frequency electric field on the human body, finite element analysis method was used to calculate electric field effect of the simplified human body model under 1000 kV transmission line. Then, comparative analysis of different towers was carried out to show the differences in the induced electric field and its distribution in the human body. The results indicated that electric field around the body is not evenly distributed, and distortion was produced; current density in the small parts of human body (e.g. the neck and legs) is high; compared with compact transmission lines, normal transmission lines induce smaller current density in the human body; the maximum induced current in the central nervous system is much smaller than safety limits of 2 mA?m−2; electric filed strength in the central nervous system under normal transmission lines is high, but the maximum induced electric field is still less than 20 mV?m−1, which is the phosphene threshold value. Studies demonstrate that induced current and electric field in the human body under UHV AC transmission line are both less than the reference levels from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results can not only provide the basis for calculation of electromagnetic exposure of the real human body, but also provide reference for electromagnetic exposure assessment standard of UHV power transmission engineering in China.

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Effect of radiation vulcanization on the mechanical properties of ethylene propylene dine terpolymer rubber
HU Guowen1 LIU Bi1 DU Jifu1 GAO Tao1 ZHAI Maolin2
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (2): 81-86.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2012.rrj.30.120204
Abstract233)      PDF(pc) (337KB)(1761)       Save

Using trimethylopropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA) as crosslinking sensitizer, ethylene propylene dine terpolymer rubber (EPDM) was vulcanized by 60Co irradiation method. It has been found that the gel fraction of EPDM increases with the TMPTMA dosage and the appropriate dosage is 8% in weight percentage to EPDM. Tensile strength increases with the absorbed dose until 120 kGy. And the adopted absorbed dose is about 80 kGy. At the same time, the properties of aging resistance and thermal stability of radiation vulcanizate are improved compared with chemical vulcanizate. TG results show that the thermal decomposition temperature of radiation vulcanizate (480℃-530℃) is higher than that of chemical vulcanizate (430℃-480℃). These experimental results indicate that the properties of aging resistance and thermal stability of radiation vulcanizate are better than those of chemical vulcanizate.

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Theory, matters needing attention and recent progress of fingernail electron paramagnetic resonance quantitative measurements
ZHANG Tengda WANG Xiao ZHAO Zhixin ZHANG Wenyi RUAN Shuzhou JIAO Ling
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (4): 40101-040101.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.040101
Abstract199)      PDF(pc) (304KB)(1743)       Save

After X-rays or γ-ray irradiation, fingernails as biomaterial having good radiosensitivity, would generate free radicals. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), a tool which can qualitatively and quantitatively measure free radicals, has been used to detect the radical concentration induced by irradiation so that estimate irradiated dose of victims and conduct triage. As an immature dosimetry method, it still has many problems, and some researchers are unfamiliar with quantitative utilization of electron paramagnetic resonance. Therefore, the theory, matters needing attention and recent progress of fingernail electron paramagnetic resonance quantitative measurements will be reviewed.

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Photochemical preparation and photocatalytic performance of Fe3O4/polyacrylic acid/CdS composite particles
MAO Weixing MU Xiao WU Kaiping KANG Zhicheng SHE Wenqiang GONG Peijun
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (1): 10303-010303.  
Abstract329)      PDF(pc) (1567KB)(1731)       Save

Poly (acrylic acid)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4/PAA) were synthesized by polymerization of acrylic acid initiated by UV light. CdS-modified Fe3O4/PAA composite particles (Fe3O4/PAA/CdS) were photochemically prepared in aqueous solution containing cadmium sulfate and sodium thiosulfate with Fe3O4/PAA as the magnetic core. The composite particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence measurement (PL), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the mean size of Fe3O4/PAA/CdS spheres with core-shell structure and rough surface is about 155 nm and the size distribution is rather wide. The composite spheres also exhibit luminescent and quasi-superparamagnetic properties. Besides, the magnetic composite spheres possess excellent activity as a recyclable photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamin B when exposed to visible light irradiation and can be covered by a magnet from aqueous solution within 2 min.

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Study on radiosensitization effect and mechanism of resveratrol on lung A549 cells
XING Xiaomeng WANG Yan DU Liqing XU Chang LIN Kaili FAN Saijun LIU Qiang
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (6): 4-060203.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.060203
Abstract479)      PDF(pc) (839KB)(1712)       Save

 We aim to investigate the effect and mechanism of resveratrol on radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 cells. MTT was used to detect the cell toxicity of different concentrations of resveratrol on lung cancer A549 cells; clonogenic assay was performed to determine the function of growth inhibition. The DNA damage was detected by the comet assay. Western blot was taken to detect the expression level of Survivin. The results showed that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on A549 cells increased with resveratrol concentration and time; the combined effect of resveratrol and radiation significantly increased the DNA damage of A549 cells induced by radiation(p<0.05), and reduced cloning efficiency as well as the expression level of Survivin. It can be concluded that resveratrol can enhance the radiation sensitivity of A549 cells, and maybe the radiosensitizing effect is achieved by suppressing the expression of Survivin protein.

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Research hotspots and recent progress of biological effects induced by heavy ion beam irradiation
GUO Xiaopeng ZHANG Miaomiao MIAO Jianshun CAO Guozhen LI Wenjian LU Dong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2015, 33 (4): 40102-040102.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2015.rrj.33.040102
Abstract244)      PDF(pc) (250KB)(1687)       Save

With the development of biological technology, the study on biological effects induced by heavy ion beam irradiation is undergoing the transition from phenotype to genotype,  qualitation to quantitation both on the research methods and research objects, and gradually into the molecular level. At the molecular level, the living matter have specific behaviors of damage and repair when irradiated by heavy ion beam, this biological effects could be quantified by the related mathematical models, meanwhile, the studies of bystander effects induced by heavy ion beam irradiation are important to decrease the damage of healthy tissue in heavy ion radiotherapy.

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Study on removal of Pb(II)-210 from aqueous solution by coated nanoscale zero-valent iron
WANG Changbai LI Xiaoyan LIU Yibao GAO Guozhen
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (3): 30701-030701.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.030701
Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (1080KB)(1684)       Save

Nanoscale zero-valent iron coated with carboxymethyl cellulose was used to remove 210Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effects on removal result of coated NZVI/CMC concentration, solution pH value, initial 210Pb(II) radioactivity, and contact time were investigated. The characterization of coated NZVI/CMC before and after reaction was analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results show that the removal rate or absorption capacity reaches 99.25% with the pH value of 5.5, the initial 210Pb radioactivity of 2.354×103 Bq?L−1, the coated NZVI/CMC concentration of 0.8 g?L−1, and the contact time of 60 min. Great changes occur to coated NZVI/CMC has after reaction, and the hammer throw reticular structure turns to lamellar structure. Coated NZVI/CMC still has rather good removal effects on 210Pb(II) in aqueous solution.

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Study on γH2AX expression of human lymphocytes induced by 60Co gamma-rays
PAN Yan GAO Gang LIU Lantao RUAN Jianlei LIU Jianxiang SU Xu
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (2): 20201-020201.  
Abstract280)      PDF(pc) (472KB)(1666)       Save

Flow cytometry analysis method was used to detect the changes of γH2AX protein expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the dose-effect study, peripheral blood was irradiated by 60Co γ-rays with the dose of 0-6 Gy and cultivated for 1 h. Peripheral blood were cultivated for 0-24 h after 4 Gy 60Co γ-rays irradiation for the time-effect study. Then, the peripheral blood was divided into four treatment groups, i.e. UV irradiation, 60Co γ-rays irradiation, UV plus 60Co γ-rays irradiation and control group to detect the changes of protein expression in different time. The results showed that the γH2AX protein expression was in a dose-dependent form. The expression of γH2AX peaked at 1 h after 4 Gy irradiation and began to decrease quickly. The expression of γH2AX in UV irradiation group increased compared with that of the sham-irradiation control group, and the expression of γH2AX peaked at 6 h. While compared with that of the 60Co γ-rays group, the γH2AX expression of UV combined 60Co γ-rays group was unchanged. The results reveal that the detection of γH2AX protein expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte by flow cytometry analysis is reasonable and may turns be a new way for biological dosimeter.

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Strategy of choosing radiation sterilization dose setting methods for health care products
GONG Pin TANG Xiaobin CHEN Da
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (5): 5-050204.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2014.rrj.32.050204
Abstract499)      PDF(pc) (247KB)(1662)       Save

With the development of nuclear technology industry, irradiation sterilization has become an interna-tionally used sterilization method for health care products. But it is difficult to choose the appropriate methods and procedures of radiation sterilization dose setting for health care products by using international standard ISO11137-2: 2013. The sterilization dose setting methods and procedures in ISO11137-2: 2013 are divided into 12 sub categories according to 5 key factors of difference and based on which the screening table of sterilization dose setting methods is developed. The screening table can help users to make a quick and appropriate choice when dealing with sterilization dose setting method choosing problem for a brand new health care product and find the corresponding experimental procedures.

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Study on supercritical carbon dioxide foaming properties of radiation modified polypropylene
WANG Mouhua XING Zhe LIU Weihua ZHANG Wenfa ZHANG Wenli WU Guozhong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2014, 32 (2): 20303-020303.  
Abstract305)      PDF(pc) (9801KB)(1651)       Save

Polypropylene (PP) was irradiated by γ-rays, and then foamed with supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of absorbed dose on melting temperature, shearing viscosity, and melt mass-flow rate (MFR) of radiation modified PP was characterized by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), advanced rheology expand system (ARES), melt flow rate testing instrument, and the morphology of PP foam was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the melting temperature and viscosity of PP decreased after γ-ray irradiation. The foamability of radiation modified PP is improved and a higher foam volume expansion ratio is obtained after radiation modification. At a given foaming pressure, foaming of radiation modified PP needs a lower temperature than that of original PP.

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Biodosimetry estimation methods for acute radiation damage
GUO Yuefeng ZHANG Huifang YANG Biao TIAN Huancheng
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Proces    2012, 30 (3): 135-141.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2012.rrj.30.120302
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To explore applicable conditions of various biodosimetry estimation methods for acute ionization ra-diation damage, the advantage and disadvantage of different radiation dose estimation as well as application potentiality w reviewed in this paper. Considering its characteristic the applicable condition of each mean for radiation dose evaluation should be suggested. In case of acute ionization radiation damage, applicable means for rapid dose estimation are in vivo EPR measurements of teeth, EPR measurements in fingernails, total automatic micronucleus assay and total automatic γ-H2AX assay.

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Domestic development on radiation-crosslinked hydrogels in biomedical applications
Ling XU,Hongwei LI,Xiao XU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 1-10.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060101
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Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional, polymeric networks that exhibit good biocompatibility, large water absorption ratios, strong water retention abilities, and the ability to mimic extracellular matrix structures and functions. Therefore, they are suitable for use in wound healing, tissue engineering, and drug delivery applications. Radiation techniques are simple, safe, and clean processes that have been employed to prepare high-quality hydrogels, including for mass production. Additionally, these radiation techniques retain biopolymer biocompatibility and ensure that modification and sterilization steps are completed simultaneously; this affords new opportunities for bio-applications. This paper summarizes the current research status of hydrogels in China, including their preparation by radiation technology and their biomedicine applications, and discusses prospective directions for future hydrogel research.

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Study on technology used in processing and sterilization of ready-to-eat crayfish
CHEN Dongqing,LI Xin,WANG Lan,XIONG Guangquan,SHI Liu,WU Wenjin,DING Anzi
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 42-49.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050403
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Using freshwater crayfish as raw materials, we developed a ready-to-eat crayfish by cleaning, cooking, curing, seasoning, and sterilization. The effects of the processing parameters of frying and sterilizing on the sensory quality, moisture, color, and texture characteristics of crayfish meat were studied. In addition, the effects of electron beam irradiation (4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy) and high-pressure steam (121 ℃, 20 min) sterilization on the colony counts of crayfish meat were compared. Results showed that, as frying temperature and frying time increased, the sensory value of crayfish meat did not change obviously. The moisture content decreased, and the hardness, elasticity, and chewiness increased. Electron beam irradiation had less effect on the texture and color of crayfish meat than high-pressure steam sterilization. With increasing absorption, the effect of irradiation sterilization became more pronounced. The crayfish could be stored for 6 d at 37 ℃ with colony counts of 7.4×104 CFU/g when irradiated at an absorbed dose of 8 kGy.

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Experimental study of silicon carbide neutron detectors
TANG Bin,CAI Jun,HUANG Wenbo,LIANG Chaofei,LI Changyuan,LI Shibin
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 67-72.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050702
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Silicon carbide (SiC) neutron detector is suitable for monitoring in elevated temperature and harsh radiation environment owing to its wide band gap. An experimental test system of SiC neutron detector was established using standard radioactive sources, and the responses of SiC neutron detector irradiated by 252Cf and 60Co standard sources were investigated, respectively. It was found that the SiC neutron detector could work at a low bias voltage, the R2 value of the linear fitting between the counting rate and the incident neutron flux of the detector is 0.999 8 under the 252Cf source irradiation, which showed a very good linear relationship. In addition, the count of the SiC neutron detector under the 60Co source irradiation was observed mainly in the low-energy area, which could effectively distinguish the effect of γ-ray by setting the discrimination threshold.

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Hot spot analysis on FLASH radiotherapy technology
Yingzi ZHANG,Shengyu YAO,Jiayi CHEN,Yong LIU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 21-29.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060103
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FLASH radiotherapy, as a technology of radiation therapy, is mainly characterized by ultra-high dose rate radiation. Due to the unique characteristic, it has become a hot spot in the field of radiotherapy. This paper summarized the findings of previous studies, including the challenges of clinical applications, the technical complexity, and the possible biological mechanisms underlying FLASH radiotherapy, which are important for clinical decisions.

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Rapid synthesis of covalent organic frameworks at room temperature through electron beam irradiation
ZHANG Mingxing,CHEN Junchang,ZHANG Shitong,ZHOU Xiaoqi,HE Linwei,Matthew V. Sheridan,YUAN Mengjia,ZHANG Maojiang,CHEN Long,DAI Xing,MA Fuyin,WANG Jingdong,HU Jiangtao,WU Guozhong,KONG Xueqian,ZHOU Ruhong,Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt,CHAI Zhifang,WANG Shuao
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 73-78.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.051001
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The conventional solvothermal/hydrothermal reaction method is still a mainstream approach for synthesis of crystalline porous materials such as covalent organic frameworks (COFs). Their synthesis methods often require increased temperatures, closed systems with high pressures, and long reaction times. The provision of a mild and efficient energy input system for rapid synthesis of COFs is still challenging. We present a rapid room-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional imine-linked COFs through simple electron beam irradiation. Radiation energy is used as a new energy input mode instead of the conventional heating energy for the COF synthesis. Such synthesis by electron beam irradiation can be achieved at room temperature within minutes. In addition, the process can be adapted for large-scale production. The absorbed dose has crucial effects on the properties of the synthesized COFs, such as the crystallinity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, morphology, and thermal stability. A series of successful syntheses of COFs, including not only the known rigid COFs, but also a series of new flexible COFs, demonstrates the generality of this approach.

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An overview of solvated electrons: recent advances
Changjiang HU,Jun MA
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010101
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Solvated electrons are the smallest and most reductive particles in nature, and also are the important reactive species in radiation chemistry. The study of solvated electrons will provide key information for the field of free-radical reactions, the radiation effects of solvents and extractants in spent fuel post-treatment, and electron transfer and transport occuring in life activities etc. Therefore, it has been a subject of intense interests in disciplines of organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, radiation chemistry and radiation biology. Owning to the accelarated advances achievied in ultrashort pulse laser technology, there has been an increasing understanding solvated electron in recent years. This paper will briefly introduce the context of these updated knowledges. It includes the study of determination of the binding energy of solvated electrons, the surface-bound states of solvated electrons, and the kinetics of pre-solvated electrons and quasi-free electrons with nucleotide molecules in solutions.

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Research progress on the radioprotective effect of epigallocatechin gallate and its mechanism
XUE Qi,WANG Man,LIU Libo
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 1-9.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050101
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The radiation protection effect and mechanism of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) were reviewed by analyzing and summarizing the literature. EGCG has a radiation protection effect on the hematopoietic system, immune system, and radiation lung injury, and its mechanism of action is related to its scavenging of free radicals, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and other effects.

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Actual absorbed dose in radiotherapy of patients with rectal cancer based on cone-beam CT
CHEN Liming,FU Juan,ZHANG Yanlong,MING Xin,WANG Keqiang,DUAN Jinghao,MENG Huipeng
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 20-25.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050301
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In the radiotherapy of rectal cancer, the actual dose received by the patient's body always differs from the planned design due to setup errors. Twenty rectal cancer cases undergoing RapidArc treatment were selected. The treatment plan of the pCT images was transplanted to the scatter-corrected cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Then, the dose was calculated to generate the revised CBCT plan after the raw CBCT plan was corrected using the weekly setup error data. Finally, a paired t-test was used to compare the results of the dose calculation between the CBCT and pCT plans. This showed that the dosimetric parameter average values of D2, D98, D50, CI, and HI in the target of the CBCT plan were lower than those in the pCT plan. The differences of 2.8%, 2.5%, 2.9%, 2.0%, and 4.4%, respectively, were statistically significant (p<0.001). The dosimetric parameter average values of Dmean, D5, V20, V30, and V40 in the small intestine of the CBCT plan were higher than those in the pCT plan. The differences of 3.0%, 3.1%, 2.5%, 3.1%, and 3.6%, respectively, were statistically significant (p<0.001). The dosimetric parameter average values of Dmean, D5, V20, V30, and V40 in the bladder of the CBCT plan were higher than those in the pCT plan. The differences of 3.0%, 1.8%, 0.9%, 3.2%, and 3.4%, respectively, were statistically significant (p<0.001). The difference between the left and right femoral heads was small (maximum difference: 0.3%, minimum difference: 0.1%); however, statistical significance was found (p<0.001). The comparative analysis indicates that the CBCT plan, based on scatter-corrected CBCT images combined with setup error data, provides a reference for the actual absorbed dose of each tissue in rectal cancer radiotherapy. These findings are useful for the quantitative evaluation of the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

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γ-ray effects on lipophilic and hydrophobic properties of polypropylene foaming materials
Peijun CAI,Xin WEN,Xiaojun WANG,Kun YAN,Chenguang YANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (3): 9-15.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.030201
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The effects of γ-ray irradiation on the lipophilic and hydrophobic properties of two types of polypropylene (PP) foam materials were systematically studied. Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high-melt-strength polypropylene (HMSPP) sheets were prepared by hot pressing with a thickness of 1 mm, and then PP foams were prepared by supercritical CO2 batch foaming. Finally, the foamed samples were irradiated with γ-rays. The results showed that the melting points and crystallization temperatures of the two foams decreased after irradiation. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the cell walls of both PP foams appeared cracks and the roughness of the foam’s cross-section increased significantly. The water contact angle of iPP foam largely increased by 26.4%, and the contact angle of HMSPP foam increased from 135.2° to 141.8°, which almost reached the super-hydrophobic level. The enhanced roughness increased the hydrophilic defects and the droplet adhesion resistance. Moreover, the appearance of the cracks in the cell walls increased the connectivity between cells, which largely increased the foam oil absorption permeability and the oil absorption quantity. This study provides a method for preparing lipophilic and hydrophobic foam.

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Study on a new technique for the treatment of Ganoderma lucidum spore powders using ball milling and γ ray irradiation
QI Hui,CHEN Liang,WU Xiaofen,ZHANG Yong,DENG Ming,WANG Keqin
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 50-59.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050404
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To improve the wall-broken rate and polysaccharide content of Ganoderma lucidum spore powders, a combined treatment of γ ray irradiation and ball milling technique was used. Two-factor tests were conducted using the absorbed dose and the ball milling time as the test factors. The morphology and molecular structure of the Ganoderma lucidum spores were characterized using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer tests under different treatment conditions. The results showed that when the absorbed dose was higher than 4.892 kGy, or the ball milling time was higher than 1 minute, the absorbed dose and ball milling time had significant effects on the wall-broken rate and the polysaccharide content of the Ganoderma lucidum spore powders, with the ball milling time having a greater effect. In addition, there was an interaction between the two pretreatment methods, which significantly affected the wall-broken rates and the polysaccharide contents of the Ganoderma lucidum spore powders. Furthermore, the optimal wall-broken rate of 97.18% and polysaccharide mass fraction of 13.230 mg/g were achieved when the Ganoderma lucidum spore powders were irradiated at 15.231 kGy with a ball milling time of 5 min. In addition, under these treatment conditions, the complete oval structure of the Ganoderma lucidum spores was almost completely broken. A small spike was observed at 1 456 cm-1, and a double peak was observed at 1 652 cm-1, which were completely different from the unbroken wall spores.

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Study on electron beam radiation sterilization process for disposable medical protective clothing
Lei CUI,Lili GUO,Lian CAO,Siqing KANG,Yuji YIN,Hongwei WANG,Tianbao CHEN,Guichao WANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 71-80.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010401
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a sharp increase in the demand for disposable medical protective clothing in the short term. In order to shorten the marketing cycle, a large number of domestic disposable medical protective clothing products have been sterilized by electron beam irradiation, which is more efficient than ethylene oxide sterilization. However, the performance of such clothing must adhere to strict requirements and the process parameters of this sterilization method still lack systematic data support. In order to ensure the reliability of electron beam sterilization of disposable medical protective clothing, research on a corresponding process was carried out. Typical disposable medical protective clothing available on the market made of polypropylene (PP) and coated with polyethylene (PE) was selected as the material studied. An appropriate method was selected to establish the corresponding sterilization dose with reference to the standard methods—“Disposable medical protective clothing irradiation sterilization emergency specification (temporary)” and “ISO 11137-2:2013 Sterilization of health care products—Radiation—Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose.” The change in material properties after irradiation sterilization with different absorbed doses was studied. Based on the obtained parameters, an algorithm for the average absorbed dose on irradiation by an irradiation electron linac was proposed. Results showed that absorbed doses of 20.3 kGy and 31.5 kGy allowed the products to achieve sterility assurance levels of 10-3 and 10-6, respectively. The material performance of the products after irradiation at 25.0 kGy, 30.0 kGy and 35.0 kGy were able to meet national standard requirements such as elongation at break, breaking strength, impermeability, and filtration efficiency. Thus, a satisfactory electron beam irradiation sterilization process for medical disposable protective clothing has been established.

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Preparation of polyethylene glycol methyl methacrylate modified polyvinylidene difluoride by homogeneous co-irradiation method
FAN Kai,LIU Enmei,LIANG Kunkun,YANG Haijun,HOU Zhengchi
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 10-19.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050201
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Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethylene glycol methyl methacrylate (PEGMA) were dissolved in N-methylpyrrolidone to form a homogeneous solution. The grafting reaction was initiated by γ-ray irradiation to prepare a modified polymer, PEGMA-g-PVDF. The analysis of the infrared spectra of PEGMA-g-PVDF before and after irradiation confirmed that the grafting reaction was effectively carried out. The degree of grafting (DG) of the irradiated product was determined by the quantitative analysis of F content before and after irradiation. Moreover, the effects of monomer concentration and absorbed dose on DG of the product were investigated. The results showed that DG increased firstly with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose in a certain range, and then decreased when exceeding the critical point. This paper also studied the thermal stability of the modified polymer through differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the melting point and thermal decomposition temperature of the modified polymer decreased with the increasing DGs. This result indicates that a higher DG reduces material’s thermal stability. Finally, according to the characteristics of homogeneous solution, the mechanism of graft reaction initiated by γ-ray irradiation was explained.

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Investigation of vegetation effects on radionuclide dispersion
Liwei CHEN,Xingqi ZHENG,Jie BAO,Mengjiao CHEN,Jiali WU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 84-89.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020603
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In this study, we analyzed a region where accidentally released radionuclides were affected by the surrounding vegetation. A radioactive leakage accident affecting shelterbelts located on both sides of a road was selected for modeling. A model of radionuclide dispersion based on computational fluid dynamics was established considering the vegetation effect, and the radionuclide distribution under different pressure loss coefficients was obtained. The results showed that the pressure loss effects of vegetation within a certain range influenced the progression of radionuclide dispersion. The distribution of radionuclides tended to be stable during the release process due to the vortex effect between vegetation groups; this provides a reference for the consequence assessment of radioactive leakage accidents in vegetation environments.

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Preparation of amidoximated polyethylene nonwoven fabric and its uranium adsorption performance
Long QIU,Xinxin FENG,Mingxing ZHANG,Zhe XING,Rong LI,Guozhong WU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 9-19.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020201
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A novel amidoximated polyethylene nonwoven fabric (PE-g-AO) was successfully prepared by electron beam pre-irradiation grafting with glycidyl methacrylate, followed by reaction induced of ethylenediamine and maleic anhydride, AIBN-initiated polymerization of acrylonitrile, and finally, amidoximation. The chemical structure and morphology of the PE nonwoven fabric before and after modification were characterized by total reflection infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Adsorption experiment results showed that the adsorption capacity of PE-g-AO for uranium is 71.92 mg/g (U(VI): 20 mg/L; NaF: 2.0 g/L; sorbent dosage: 0.2 g/L; adsorption time: 216 h). When the dosage of adsorbent is 1.0 g/L, the uranyl ions in the solution are basically adsorbed, and the residual uranium concentration is 0.04 mg/L, which meets the national emission standard. Furthermore, the material has a good adsorption selectivity for uranium in a solution containing UO22+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ ions.

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Influence of total ionizing dose effects on domestic SiGe BiCMOS under different bias conditions
WANG Libin,WANG Xin,WU Xue,LI Xiaolong,LIU Mohan,LU Wu
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 60-66.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050701
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This paper evaluates the effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) radiation 0.35 μm domestic SiGe BiCMOS devices under different bias conditions. 60Co gamma irradiation was performed at a high dose rate of 1 Gy(Si)/s. The results show that the SiGe BiCMOS devices enable excellent tolerance to total ionizing effect, reaching multi-kGy(Si) total ionizing dose tolerance, and the base currents are more sensitive to radiation. Under different bias conditions, when the total dose accumulated to 12 kGy(Si), the reverse bias irradiated damage is the largest, followed by the zero bias, and the forward bias irradiation presents minimum damage. We found that the main mechanism of TID is that the high dose rate radiation and the edge electric field introduced by the bias conditions influences the oxide trap charges and interface state generation in the oxide layer, which leads to an increase in the radiation sensitive zone of the base pole and an increase in the base current, thus reducing the current gain of the device.

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Protective effects of Huangqi decoction on heavy ion radiation (12C6+) injury of the rat brain
Chunlu YAN,Fangyu AN,Yongqi LIU,Yun SU,Liying ZHANG,Jiawei Li,Caixia WANG,Tongxiang WANG,Guowen WANG,Menghan LI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 38-47.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060301
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To explore the effect of Huangqi decoction on Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 expressions in rat brain tissues irradiated by 12C6+ ion beam, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups—normal control group, radiation alone model group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose Huangqi decoction groups. After 7 days of routine feeding, rats in the high-, medium-, and low-dose Huangqi decoction groups were administered Huangqi decoction [18 g/(kg·d), 9 g/(kg·d), 4.5 g/(kg·d)] by gavage for 2 weeks . The normal control group and radiation alone group were administered the same volume saline by gavage. From the 7th day, the brain of the rats of the radiation alone model group and high-, medium-, and low-dose Huangqi decoction groups were radiated once by 4Gy 12C6+ ion. The brain of rats in the normal control group were not radiated. The rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (3 mL/kg), and blood was collected from the femoral artery 7 days after irradiation. To calculate the brain coefficient with weighing, pathomorphism changes in the brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling staining, and the apoptosis percentage of nerve cells was calculated. Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 gene expressions in the brain tissues were assessed using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 protein expressions in the brain tissues were analyzed using western blotting. The body weight and brain coefficient significantly decreased; the apoptosis percentage of nerve cells had evidently increased; the gene and protein expressions of Bcl-2 in the brain tissues significantly decreased; the gene and protein expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 in the brain tissues significantly increased in the radiation alone model group (p<0.01). The brain coefficient increased in the medium- and high-dose Huangqi decoction groups; the body weight and the gene and protein expressions of Bcl-2 increased significantly in the high-dose group (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The apoptosis percentage of nerve cells was evidently declined in the medium- and high-dose Huangqi decoction groups; the gene and protein expressions of Caspase-3 decreased significantly in the medium- and high-dose Huangqi decoction groups; the gene and protein expressions of Bax decreased significantly in the high-dose Huangqi decoction group (p<0.01). The result of histopathologic examination displayed sparse cerebral tissues in the radiation alone model group, with the decreased amount of cells and enlarged interspace, while sparse cerebral tissues, the decreased amount of cells and enlarged interspace were obviously improved, but it did not return to normal. The protective effect of Huangqi decoction against brain injury induced by 12C6+ ion beam radiation is achieved mainly by controlling the up-regulation of Bax and Caspase-3 expressions and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.

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Central nervous system injury caused by space radiation and radiation protection
Jundong FENG,Yizhou LUO,Hao ZHOU,Xida ZHAO,Huiyao LUO,Wenqian LIU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 11-20.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060102
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Space radiation may be one of the most limiting factors for deep space exploration. Firstly, this paper introduces the sources, types and biological damage effects of space radiation, focusing on the damage effects of space radiation on the central nervous system. Secondly, this paper summarizes the current space radiation protection measures, including physical protection methods and biomedical protection methods, and expounds the basic principles of different protection methods.

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Fractionation processing of cellulose, lignin, and xylose from irradiated rice straw using formic acid
WU Xiaofen,QI Hui,CHEN Liang,ZHANG Yong,XU Yuanfang,DENG Ming,WANG Keqin
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 26-33.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050401
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The cellulose, lignin, and xylose in irradiated rice straw were fractionated by formic acid method, and the effects of absorbed dose, reaction temperature, and reaction time on fractionation efficiency were studied. The separated components were analyzed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the cellulose and xylan were degraded into water-soluble oligosaccharides after irradiation. Rice straw irradiated with 400 kGy was treated with 88% formic acid at 100 ℃ for 3 h, the lignocellulose components obtained the best separation effect: the extraction rates of cellulose, lignin, and xylose were 83.22%, 46.18%, and 89.52%, respectively; the purities of cellulose and lignin were 61.26% and 86.19%, respectively; the concentrations of xylose and arabinose in the rice straw xylose component were 7.04 g/L and 0.77 g/L, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy showed that both cellulose and lignin fractionated from rice straw by formic acid were formylated.

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Photosynthetic profiling and response to heavy-ion irradiation in Dunaliella salina
XI Yimei,YIN Liang,CHI Zhanyou,LI Xin,LUO Guanghong
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (5): 34-41.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.050402
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In this study, we aimed to explore the biological effect and photosynthetic response mechanism of heavy-ion irradiation on Dunaliella salina. Dunaliella salina was treated with different doses (0~320 Gy) of heavy-ion irradiation.The cell biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and main photosynthetic pigments of progenies from irradiated Dunaliella salina cells were systematically measured and analyzed within 10 days of treatment. The results showed a significant increase in the biomass of cells that underwent heavy-ion irradiation at 90 Gy, 240 Gy, and 320 Gy doses compared with non-irradiated Dunaliella salina cells. In particular, the maximum biomass of irradiated cells was 1.78-fold greater than of non-irradiated cells at 240 Gy. The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system, Water-PAM, was used to analyze the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), actual photosynthetic activity (ΦPSII), and non-photochemical quenching capacity (NPQ) of the cells after irradiation. The results indicated that 90 Gy, 240 Gy, and 320 Gy doses notably increased the photosynthetic efficiency of Dunaliella salina. The 240 Gy dose-irradiated algal cells exhibited activated photoprotection systems more rapidly as compared to cells irradiated at other doses. Additionally, the β-carotene content of the algal cells after irradiation was measured using UV spectrophotometry. The results revealed that β-carotene production increased compared with non-irradiated Dunaliella salina cells, by 1.3 and 1.1 times with 240 Gy and 320 Gy, respectively. To our knowledge, this study investigated the dose and time response to heavy-ion irradiation on Dunaliella salina mutagenesis for the first time, and provided a preliminary theoretical and experimental basis for the response mechanism of the photosynthetic system to heavy-ion irradiation.

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Research progress on the effect of water types on H2 production in cement solidification treatment
Chengying YIN
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 1-8.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020101
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In this article, we made a comprehensive discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of cementitious matrices for low-and intermediate-level nuclear waste conditioning, reviewed the effects of water type (i.e., adsorbed water, trapped water, pore water in the layered structure, and pore water in a three-dimensional network) on H2 production. This research aims to determine the influence of various parameters on the radiolytic H2 production of cement paste, in order to adjust the cement formula and ensure the safety of long-term storage and disposal of cement matrices for low-and intermediate -level nuclear waste conditioning.

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Comparison of the radiation dose for different software versions of Varian cone-beam CT scanning protocols
Chunxia LIU,Juan FU,Yanlong ZHANG,Keqiang WANG,Xin MING,Kewen Ai,Huipeng MENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 48-54.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060302
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The cumulative radiation dose of multiple cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning cannot be ignored in radiotherapy. It can provide supporting data for the rational use of Varian cone-beam computed tomography in clinical practice by analyzing the radiation dose of different versions of CBCT scanning protocols (V1.4, V1.5 and V1.6). In accordance with the radiation dosimetry method (TG111) recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) 111 working group, an extended phantom (45 cm in length) and a 0.6 cm3 finger ionization chamber were used to perform the radiation dose measurement for different versions of the Varian CBCT system scanning protocols. According to the specifications recommended by TG111, the weighted radiation dose (TG111W) and the normalized radiation dose (nTG111W) of CBCT were calculated. The results showed that the weighted radiation dose of the V1.5 scanning protocol (in both equipment) was higher than that of the other two versions (except the pelvic protocol). The high-quality head protocol of the V1.5 version had the maximum dose (30.06 mGy), and the low-dose head protocol of the V1.4 version had the minimum dose (2.83 mGy). Minor differences were found among the protocols for the results of the normalized radiation dose; the standard-dose head protocol had the maximum difference (1.33 mGy; V1.4 vs. V1.5 (TB)), and the low-dose thorax and pelvic protocols had the minimum difference (0.01 mGy; V1.5 (TB) vs. V1.6).The results suggest that the radiation dose of each version of the scanning protocol is closely related to the parameters such as tube voltage and exposure (the maximum factor) and that frequency of the CBCT scanning needs to be planned reasonably according to the different scanning protocols used in clinical practice.

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Ionizing radiation promotes primary ciliogenesis in glioblastoma cells
Wei MA,Qinglong MA,Li WEI,Junrui HUA,Jinpeng HE,Jufang WANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 27-34.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020301
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on ciliogenesis of human glioblastoma cells. The glioblastoma cell lines M059K and M059J were exposed to X-ray or carbon ion at different doses, and the incidence and length of primary cilia that emerged were detected by immunofluorescence. A colony formation assay was used to investigate the influence of primary cilia interference by siRNA against IFT88 (siIFT88) on the cellular sensitivity to IR. The results showed that both M059K and M059J harbor primary cilia, with the incidence in M059K and M059J cells at (41.36±4.75)% and (8.07±1.58)%, respectively. The average length of cilia in both cells exceeded 3 μm, with M059J cells having lower frequency and shorter length of primary cilia, and exhibiting a prominently higher radiosensitivity compared to M059K cells. Conversely, X-ray irradiation significantly increased the incidence of primary cilia in M059K cells, and the rate of ciliogenesis reaching approximately 60% when exposed to 10 Gy. Notably, suppression of ciliogenesis by siIFT88 remarkably elevated the radiosensitivity of M059K cells. Moreover, IR-induced ciliogenesis showed dose-dependent and time-response characteristics. In summary, IR promotes ciliogenesis by increasing both number and length of primary cilia, and the obstruction of primary ciliogenesis enhances the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells.

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Research progress of automated micronucleus analysis technology for cytokinesis arrest
Xiang SHEN,Ying CHEN,Zhanbo WEN,Jinlin ZHENG,Zhenggan ZHOU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (3): 1-8.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.030101
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In the field of radiation biological dose estimation, cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus analysis (CBMN method) is the best internationally recognized estimation approach, excluding chromosomal aberrations. To overcome the limitations of the artificial CBMN method, namely the large amount of time and labor required for its execution, automated methods are being widely explored to detect binuclear cell micronuclei. This study involves an analysis of the relevant literature on an international level and an inspection and summary of the research on CBMN automated analysis so as to fully describe the current research progress and characteristics thereof. On this basis, future development trends of CBMN automated analysis can be predicted to provide useful references for researchers in related fields.

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Effects of corona discharge plasma radiation on alfalfa seeds
Wenqian XU,Xinyu LUAN,Yibing LI,Hao CHEN,Changjiang DING,Zhiqing SONG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 45-54.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020401
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Alfalfa seeds were directly treated with corona discharge plasma radiation and compared with the control group, which was covered by a Petri dish, blocking the etching effect of ionic wind and thus simulating the effect of a non-uniform electric field. The results showed that corona discharge plasma radiation changed the chemical structure of the seed coat. The peak value of the Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the seed coat at 2 856 cm?1 and 1 729 cm?1 changed after treatment, indicating that the wax, lipids, and cellulose in the seed coat may have been degraded. Measurements of the seed floating rate and apparent contact angle in the treated seeds compared to the measurements in the control group indicated that corona discharge plasma radiation also improved the hydrophilicity of the alfalfa seeds. In the control group, the Petri dish cover effectively reduced the physicochemical etching by ionic wind; thus, it appears that ionic wind has a greater influence on the seed coat than does the non-uniform electric field. Scanning electron micrograph images showed that the etching of the seed coat in the treated seeds was severe; the cellulose of the seed coat was degraded, and the surface was cracked, which improved the water absorption capacity of the seed. The seedling height of the seeds treated with corona discharge plasma radiation increased significantly compared to that of the control group, indicating that the physicochemical etching of the ionic wind had resulted in a macroscopic biological effect. This study provides experimental data support for the analysis of surface modification and chemical structure composition of alfalfa seeds treated with corona discharge plasma radiation and also provides a basis for further study of the biological effect mechanism of the corona discharge field.

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Fabrication of bamboo fiber-based adsorbent by radiation grafting and rapid adsorption of phosphate
Jifu DU,Zhen DONG,Xin YANG,Long ZHAO
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (3): 16-25.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.030202
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Quaternary ammonium salt modified bamboo fiber was prepared by radiation grafting of methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride on the bamboo fiber. The modified bamboo fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the quaternary ammonium salt monomer was successfully grafted on the surface of the bamboo fiber. The adsorption behavior of phosphate on the modified bamboo fiber was examined by batch and fixed-bed column adsorption experiments. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate on the modified bamboo fiber followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with an equilibrium time of 20 min. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 67.48 mg/g when using the Langmuir model which was well fitted with the adsorption isotherms data. The fix-bed column experiments showed that the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models explained the experimental data effectively. Moreover, the modified bamboo fiber can be effectively regenerated for further use. Such high adsorption and desorption efficiency of the modified bamboo fiber is advantageous for phosphate adsorption in practical applications.

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Radiation reduction treatment and mechanism of Pb(II) ion sewage
Zhihao WANG,Yunlong WANG,Yongzhi HONG,Jun MA
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 55-65.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020402
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In this study, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the change of Pb(II) ion concentration in solution before and after 60Co γ-ray irradiation; also, factors, such as the gas atmosphere, mole concentration of the initial Pb(II) ion, anion species, hydroxyl scavenger, and the effects of adding a small amount of silica sol during solid-liquid phase separation were examined to characterize their effects on the reduction treatment of wastewater containing Pb(II). The results showed that radiation-induced solvated electrons can reduce Pb(II) to Pb(0) and that the removal rate can reach 98% at an absorbed dose of 50 kGy. Nitrogen protection increased the removal rate of Pb(II) by approximately 2.5 times. The effect of the type of anion on the removal rate was negligible, but the addition of the hydroxyl radical shielding agent significantly improved the Pb(II) removal rate; the order of improvement from high to low was formic acid>isopropanol>methanol>ethanol>tertiary butanol. Additionally, due to the charge effect, the presence of low concentration (5~50 mmol/L) silica sol inhibits the reduction and removal of Pb(II). The removal rate of radiation treatment was better for higher initial concentration of Pb(II) ions. In concentrated solutions, additional pre-solvated electrons and excited state H2O** may also participate in the reduction reaction. This study provides insights for designing a feasible and optimal radiation process to treat wastewater containing lead ions.

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Status of international biodosimetry networks and biodosimetry technique
Juancong DONG,Yahui ZUO
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 30-37.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060104
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This paper mainly reviews the dose estimation in nuclear and radiation accident emergency. Based on the actual situation of China Institute of Radiation Protection, the current research status and development trend of biological dose laboratory network, and biological dose estimation technique are introduced.

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Design and application of the fundamental database system of nuclear accident emergency rescue
Jie LIU,Xiaolei ZHENG,Pengcheng LONG,Fang WANG,Jin WANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 76-83.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020602
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After a major nuclear accident, emergency rescue can be carried out in a timely, scientific and reasonable manner with a quick grasp of the information on the distribution of emergency rescue forces, rescue supplies, and the population. In this study, a fundamental database system for nuclear accident emergency rescue was constructed based on a geographic information system platform. The system is used for the analysis and management of basic data on nuclear emergencies, geographic environment, emergency forces, emergency plans, resource safeguards, support forces around nuclear facilities, the construction of nuclear accident emergency reference documents, regulations, and standards, case analysis document. With the comprehensive application of advanced technologies such as visualization, digital maps, and human computer interaction, nuclear emergency data and maps are visually displayed, which can aid in nuclear accident emergency decision-making and technical support.

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The role of T cells in tumor radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy and gastrointestinal adverse events
Xiaolin SHI,Haowen ZHANG,Fenju LIU
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 15-20.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010102
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A combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy can be useful as an emergent strategy for cancer treatment; however, it has severe adverse effects on normal tissues and hampers their development. Gastrointestinal toxicity, which involves the participation of multiple immune cells, is commonly reported among immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Here, we described the clinical application of radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy and the gastrointestinal irAEs (GI irAEs) associated with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We further discussed the plausible underlying mechanism of adaptive immune cells in a combinatorial treatment of radiotherapy and immunotherapy as well as its GI irAEs to explore new perspectives for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GI irAEs and treatment strategies.

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High energy electron beam irradiation for producing crosslinked nitrile butadiene rubber/polyvinyl chloride raw rubber cots
Nannan TONG,Xuerong FAN,Weidong GAO,Jin XU,Shaozhou LI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 37-46.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010203
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Nitrile butadiene rubber/polyvinyl chloride vulcanized rubber was prepared by high-energy electron beam (EB) irradiation and sulfur vulcanization. The effects of the absorbed dose and of these two curing processes on the properties and structure of the vulcanized rubber were examined. Increasing the absorbed dose during EB curing increased the vulcanized rubber crosslinking density, glass temperature, and crystallinity, and caused the fracture section to become smoother. Optimal EB vulcanized rubber properties were observed when the absorbed dose was 150 kGy, which provided a gel fraction of 97.2% and a crosslinking density of 2.12×10-3 mol/g, both of which were 7% and 15% higher than those provided by sulfur vulcanization, respectively. Furthermore, the tensile strength of the EB-cured rubber was 20.83 MPa, which was 17.7% lower than that of the sulfur-vulcanized rubber. The hardness increased by 7% to 90 HA and the impact resilience increased by 100% to 13, while the wear resistance decreased. These properties meet the minimum requirements for spinning cots; also, the curing time decreased by 40 min and the curing efficiency increased by 66.5%.

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Dose verification based on phantom and CT images using Octavius 1500 detector
Yixiao GUO,Yazhou LI,Zhiqiang LIU,Guoying MIAO,Hongyi CAI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 35-44.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020302
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A 3D dose verification of RapidArc plans was performed using an Octavius 1500 detector. The feasibility of 3D dose reconstruction based on CT images and the factors that affect the accuracy of dose reconstruction were investigated. The dose verification results in phantom and CT images were analyzed on 106 clinically approved RapidArc plans for different anatomical sites (31 head and neck, 36 chest, and 39 pelvis), and a 3D global volumetric γ index analysis was established under the tolerance criteria of 3%/3 mm, 3%/2 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 2%/1 mm (threshold 10%). The average volumetric 3D global gamma analysis results for the different sites were 99.31%, 99.86%, and 98.36% (3%/3 mm, p=0.308) and 96.74%, 97.91%, and 95.16% (3%/2 mm, p=0.193). For the 36 plans measured with the Octavius 729 matrix again, the 95% confidence intervals for the 1500 and 729 detectors were [98.53, 99.58]% and [95.16, 96.93]% for the 3%/3 mm criteria (mean values are 99.05% and 96.05%), [95.57, 97.99]% and [89.56, 92.63]% for the 3%/2 mm criteria (mean values are 96.78% and 91.09%), [88.89, 94.10]% and [81.41, 86.09]% for the 2%/2 mm criteria (mean values are 91.49% and 83.75%), and [75.66, 84.14]% and [67.68,74.05]% for 2%/1 mm criteria (mean values are 79.9% and 70.86%), respectively. The accuracy of the Octavius system in reconstructing the 3D volumetric dose may depend on the complexity of the target, the steepness of the dose gradient, and the resolution of the ionization chamber matrix. Analysis of the failed points (γ>1) based on the plan CT images is feasible.

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Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles by radiation induced grafting and their dispersion in a polymer matrix
Zhiang FU,Xiaoying GU,Yu GU,Manli LU,Yongjin LI,Jingye LI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (3): 41-50.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.030205
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Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles were successfully prepared by grafting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) onto barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles (F-BT) by the co-irradiation technique at room temperature under vacuum. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that PVDF was covalently grafted onto the BT surface. The crystallization behavior of F-BT was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which revealed that the crystalline phase of PVDF on the BT surface was the β phase, while there is no indication of the presence of an α phase. The prepared F-BT nanoparticles were then dispersed in the PVDF matrix to obtain the nanocomposites. Compared to pristine BT, F-BT showed better dispersion in the PVDF matrix and enhanced mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. This can be attributed to the grafted tails on the F-BT, which had specific interactions with PVDF molecular chains.

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Radiation crosslinking and performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene microporous membrane under different temperatures
Junna GAO,Kang ZHAO,Guoshi CUI,Xingjuan SHU,Pan CUI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (3): 26-32.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.030203
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An ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) microporous membrane was affixed to a plate and heated to 126~127 °C, and its absorbed dose was controlled at 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, and 75 kGy irradiated by a high-energy electron beam. The effects of different absorbed doses on the cross-linking degree, tensile strength, puncture force, crystallinity, and temperature resistance of the UHMWPE microporous membranes under heated conditions were investigated. The crosslinking degree of the UHMWPE microporous membrane with an absorbed dose of 75 kGy was 97%, and the membrane integrity was maintained up to 12 h after boiling in xylene. The mechanical properties of the membrane degraded, and the tensile strength decreased from 151.8 to 75.3 MPa. The puncture force reduced from 4.31 to 2.74 N, exhibiting a 36% decrease. The crystallinity and thermal shrinkage ratio also decreased from 30.7% to 23.4% and from 95.8% to 1.8%, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that the greater the absorbed dose, more significant was the pore closure of the UHMWPE microporous membrane.

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Application of γ rays in insecticidal sterilization of document archives
Yi LIANG,Zhaohua TANG,Zhichao ZHU,Xionghou PENG,Hongyan CHEN,Yuejun CHEN
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2020, 38 (6): 55-62.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2020.rrj.38.060401
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In this study, the optimal dose of irradiation for insecticidal sterilization was investigated by simulating different doses of γ rays irradiation on paper samples (simulated paper document archives), and the mechanical properties of paper, colors of patterns and handwriting were analyzed. In case of Aspergillus, Bacillus subtilis, tobacco beetle, and ctenolepisma villosa, the killing rate >99.9% was achieved when the absorbed dose was 2 kGy. After aging, the mechanical properties, gutters and ink marks of the samples were kept at least 80% of the original ones, which would not affect the later preservation. In consideration of the effectiveness of insecticidal sterilization, safety of paper document archives, and economics of irradiation services, the absorbed dose of 2 kGy was appropriate for the preservation of document archives.

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Influence of different sampling depths in a two-dimensional ionization chamber matrix on the γ pass rate of intensity-modulated radiation therapy
Yadi HE,Jinhui JIN,Fantu KONG,Luxi CHEN,Jie DONG,Zhenghuan LI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 47-53.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010301
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In order to study the influence of different sampling depths in a two-dimensional ionization chamber matrix on the γ pass rate, we compared and analyzed the different depth dose in the quality assurance (QA) plan and the measurement levels of the two-dimensional ionization chamber matrix (MatriXX). A total of 21 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma IMRT plan were selected, and the CT images of MatriXX and Miniphantom phantoms were imported into the planning system as the QA phantom. We transplanted the intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan to the QA phantom to recalculate the dose and selected the plane dose with 6 dose levels at a height of 5 mm from the top to the bottom of the ionization chamber cavity at an equal interval of 1 mm. Then, we exported the dose distribution file of the corresponding plane to the MatriXX system and analyzed the measured dose results to obtain 6 sets of results, and recorded the γ pass rate under the 3 mm/3%, 2 mm/2%, and 2 mm/2% evaluation standards. The results show that the pass rate of 3 mm/3% at the dose level of Compare4, Compare5, and Compare6 was greater than 95.00%, which met the clinical requirements; the pass rate of 3 mm/2% at the dose level of Compare6 was greater than 95.00%, meeting the clinical requirements. The pass rate was increased from 81.45% of Compare1 to 98.08% of Compare6 by 3 mm/3%, which was an increase of 16.63%; as well as an increase of 21.13% by 3 mm/2% from 74.27% of Compare1 to 95.40% of Compare6; and also an increase of 29.56% by 2 mm/2% from 55.15% of Compare1 to 84.71% of Compare6. The level of Compare3 was the level corresponding to the height of the cross-marker line on the side of MatriXX. The dose at this level was taken as the reference group, and the results of the other groups were statistically significant when compared with the dose at this level (p<0.05). When doing QA of an IMRT plan, the dose plane at a depth of the bottom layer of the two-dimensional ionization chamber matrix was used as the reference dose plane for the verification of the IMRT plan γ pass rate, which has the highest pass rate compared with the actual measured value.

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Effect of a power frequency electromagnetic field induced by a high voltage AC transmission line on the human head
Zan GONG,Zhiying CHEN,Jianbin ZENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (4): 40601-040601.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.040601
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High-voltage AC transmission lines are one of the important factors that produce power frequency electromagnetic exposure environmental problems. To investigate the safety of the electromagnetic exposure of a human head under high-voltage AC transmission lines, this study considers 220 kV AC transmission lines as the research object; employs COMSOL Multiphysics to establish a three-dimensional, finite element simulation model of a human head under AC transmission lines, exposed to a power frequency electromagnetic field; calculates the electromagnetic field distribution around the human head for various distances; and judges the safety of the electromagnetic exposure of the human head. The results demonstrate that the shape of the head affects the distribution of the electric field. The intensity of the electromagnetic field around the head corresponds to the distance between the transmission lines and the head. The farther the transmission line is from the head, the weaker is the electromagnetic field around the head. According to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and GB 8702—2014 standard, respectively, the minimum safe distance between the head and the electric field, when the lines are grounded, is 11.0 m and 11.5 m, and when the lines are ungrounded, 10.5 m and 12.0 m. The flux density around the head is less than these two standard limits.

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Radiation tolerance of several lithium greases
Yiji ZHOU,Wenge LI,Yuanfang XU,Qiling ZHANG,Xiaofen WU,Caifeng ZHAO,Yong ZHANG,Zhaohui ZOU,Ling PENG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 29-36.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010202
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Using γ ray to irradiat six types of lithium grease, the color of these greases was observed to change, and the degree of change was found to be positively correlated with an increase in the absorbed dose. After irradiation with an absorbed dose of 8.1×103 kGy, the thickener of the lithium complex grease softened, degraded, and entered the hardening and crosslinking stage ahead of its ordinary degradation process. Furthermore, its average shear stress increased by 169%. Additional oxidation products were generated from the base oil of the lithium complex grease compared with the simple lithium-based grease treated with the same absorbed dose. When simple lithium grease absorbed a dose of 8.1×103 kGy, its thickener also softened and the consistency decreased; however, its average shear stress decreased. The degree of deterioration of the simple lithium grease was seemingly lighter than that of the lithium complex grease. Therefore, simple lithium grease may be more suitable for irradiation facilities.

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Effect of CpG-ODN on thymus damage radiated by carbon ions
Chao ZHANG,Hua FU,Jianming CAI,Fu GAO
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 54-60.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010302
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To investigate the ameliorative effect of CpG-ODN on thymus damage after carbon ion radiation (CIR), C57BL/6L mice were irradiated with 5 Gy of CIR, and 30-day survival was observed. The index of the thymus was calculated and the degree of thymus damage was evaluated by histological examination. Apoptosis was detected by terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay and double-strand break (DSB) was detected by γ-H2AX immunohistochemistry. The number of T cells in the peripheral blood was examined by CD3 antibody labeling. The results showed that CpG-ODN increased mice survival by 50%, obviously ameliorated thymus damage, reduced the number of γ-H2AX foci and TUNEL-positive cells of the thymus, and increased the number of CD3+ T cells in peripheral blood after CIR. This indicated that CpG-ODN could ameliorate thymus damage induced by CIR. These findings might be related to the inhibition of DSB and apoptosis.

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Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to study photooxidative damage induced by difloxacin to lysozyme
Haixia LI,Yancheng LIU,Wenfeng WANG
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (2): 20-26.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.020202
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The photooxidative damage induced by difloxacin to lysozyme was studied using steady-state illumination. Difloxacin damaged lysozyme structure under 315~375 nm light irradiation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the mechanisms and products of oxidative damage were related to the difloxacin concentration, time of irradiation, and ambient conditions. Longer irradiation time and higher difloxacin concentration lead to more serious damage to lysozyme. When incubated under nitrogen, air, or oxygen, the most serious damage to lysozyme was observed in an oxygen atmosphere. The type I process was examined in a nitrogen-saturated solution, whereas both type I and type II were observed in an aerobic atmosphere, and type II was the dominant process.

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Self-assembly of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene diblock copolymers in selective solvents and its crosslinking behavior upon γ-ray irradiation
Kai FAN,Linfan LI,Jihao LI
Journal of Radiation Research and Radiation Processing    2021, 39 (1): 21-28.   DOI: 10.11889/j.1000-3436.2021.rrj.39.010201
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In our approach, using Delsa? Nano submicron particle size dynamic light scattering analyzer, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, and thermo-gravimetric analyzer, we investigated the self-assembly behavior of block copolymer polystyrene polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) in selective solvent, 2-butanone, as well as the effect of irradiation crosslinking that resulted in the immobilization of micelles. Since the selective solvent, 2-butanone, is the soluble solvent of PS segment and insoluble solvent of polybutadiene (Pb) segment, under suitable conditions, PS-b-PB could form monodisperse "core-shell" nano-micelles microstructure. The experimental results showed that under suitable conditions, PS-b-PB could form monodisperse nano-micelles with different core-shell components in selective solvent, and the size of micelles could be adjusted by controlling the mass fraction of PS-b-PB in the solvent. The micelle solution of 2-butanone/PS-b-PB block polymer system was further irradiated by γ-ray irradiation without oxygen, and the results showed that the micelles had a certain improvement in the micro-morphology and thermodynamic stability. The reason is that the crosslinking reaction of PB chain in the micelles induced by γ-ray irradiation is immobilized, and the cured micelles are no longer affected by ultrasonic vibration, solvent dilution, and volatilization. This study provided a new approach and method for the preparation of polymer nano-micelles.

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